What & How & Why

History Before Liunx


1969.Multics

Participants: Bell Lab, MIT,GE
Base technique for this project: Compatible Time-Sharing System, CTSS: allow less than 30 terminals to operate server at the same time.
Project Goal: Create an operation system that allow at least 300 terminals work at the same time.
Websites: http://www.multicians.org/

1969.Unics

Creator: Ken Thompson
Programming Language used: Assembler
Important aspects for Unics:

  1. the use of plain text for storing data
  2. treating devices and certain types of inter-process communication (IPC) as files
  3. all applications and devices have only one target: do things well.

1973.Unix

Creator: Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie
Programming Language used: B, C;
B: developed by Ken Thompson, mainly on the BCPL language Thompson used in the Multics project.
C: developed by Dennis Ritchie, rewrite base on B, to solve Unix kernel problems.

1977.BSD

BSD:Berkeley Software Distribution,The First Unix Distribution
Creator:Bill Joy (also as known as the founder of SUN)

1979.System V

UNIX System V: the first commercial Unix version
Creator: AT&T
Variants: AIX(IBM) \ HP-UX(HP)
Important contents: support x86 computer.

1984.Minix

Why Minix: AT&T had serious restriction on providing System V to students.
Creator:Andrew S. Tanenbaum

1984.GNU&FSF

GNU(GNU is Not Unix): GNU's design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being free software and containing no Unix code.
FSF: Free Software Foundation,support the free software movement, which promotes the universal freedom to study, distribute, create, and modify computer software, with the organization's preference for software being distributed under copyleft (“share alike”) terms
Founder:Richard Stallman( also as known as the creator of GCC(C complier),Emacs(one of the most famous editor) and BASH shell)

1988.X window system

X window system: a GUI for Unix.
Developer: MIT